Definition: an arrangement of opposite elements place on a piece of medium like paper, for example. 

Contrast can be differentiated from many elements like:

  • Patterns
  • Colours
  • Angle/ Shape
  • Typography
  • Size

I had to draw out my ideas for my composition of contrast. We were not allowed to refer to the internet and the ideas had to come from me. It was quite challenging at first, but slowly ideas kept flowing to me. We could only use black pens, pencils or black marker pens. 

I drew four different ideas for the contrast composition using my 2B pencil.


After going through my drawing ideas, I decided to go on with idea 3 and added some details to it. I thought of adding the influence of Sherlock Holmes to this composition. I searched images of Sherlock Holmes and found the objects he cherishes: a smoking pipe, his detective cap, and a magnifying glass. Here are some images that helped me with my research.

I decided to combine these two ideas into one paper. I develop the composition a little more.


My final outcome is on how the curious little ant just came out of Sherlock‘s things after exploring. I showed a contrast in the sizes between the ant and the objects. Additionally, the pattern drawn in the hat silhouette is different from the rest. I used a black marker and black ink pen for this piece.

Final Outcome:



Definition: the principle of grouping or a unified whole. It also involves both positive and negative spaces.

There are five different types of Gestalt Principles:

  1. Figure-ground
  2. Closure
  3. Similarity
  4. Continuation
  5. Proximity

We were asked to create a Gestalt composition with the use of positive and negative spaces on an A4 paper. We needed to create a negative space design on a piece of black paper first. 

I started off by sketching my ideas on my sketchbook first.


After sketching my ideas out, I picked the first sketch as my final idea. I used some image references to help me make out this composition. I combine the silhouette of a wine bottle as it associates with the ballet for elegance. And on the left pointed ballet shoe, I added the ballet term “pointe” is a French meaning for the position of the ballet dancer standing on “the tip of the toe“.

For this piece, I am showing the figure-ground and closure principle.

Final Outcome:



Symmetry: Elements that are arranged in the same way on both sides of an axis.

Rotational: Every element rotates around a common center.

Transitional: Elements are repeated over different locations in space.

Asymmetry: Arrangement of elements are different on either side of an axis.

Balance: Distribution of equal and visual weight of objects, colours, texture and space in a composition.

Dominance/Emphasis: One element or object that really stands out than the others.

For this exercise, we were supposed to create a composition based on either symmetryasymmetrybalance, and dominance. We were only allowed to use watercolour. 

Before I chose which one to do, I sketched four ideas.


After sketching out these ideas, I chose to develop on Idea 3. For idea 3, I was inspired by a Disney character, Tinkerbell. The background was inspired by the scene in Peter Pan movie and story. It is the scene where Wendy looks out the window for Peter Pan and his mates. 


But I changed the Peter Pan idea to Tinkerbell instead. 

I decided to emphasise on Tinkerbell silhouette by adding depth to it. I used light green, light blue, and yellow colour paper and paste it with foam paper and PVA glue to create depth and bright colours to stand out more than a dark background.

Final Outcome:



Pattern: an object or symbol repeated on an artwork. It can also include repeating lines, colours, shapes on a surface.

Repetition: reusing the same or similar elements in a design.


1. quality of an object which we can touch. It can be referred to as a surface that we can see, feel or imagine like we are really touching the real surface.

2. an image, visual memories from our mind or imaginary. They can create contrast and balance the composition of the design.

Surface: The outermost or uppermost layer of a physical object/space. It is where any medium is applied and allows people to see things from a 2D perspective but only we know what it is made of.

We are supposed to create a composition of either pattern, repetition, texture or surface. The media we had to work with is anything that can be used as rubber stamps. For example, vegetable/fruit print, sponge, sticks and so on.

I have decided to do on patterns. I chose a geometric pattern as the concept for my composition. I gathered some references to help me create my own patterns

I reused my lino cut design from my printmaking class during foundation as the final pattern. I decided to work out creating patterns and texture to it as well.

After the lino printing, I added some shades of soft pastels to make it more colourful rather than a plain red pattern composition.


Final Outcome:


I also did another piece by using different things that have circular patterns. I used a half onion, carrot, a circular plastic lid, and a wooden stick.


I was not satisfied with only having one coloured stamping for each layer, so I added some depth using colour pencils to make the pattern stand out more.

Final Outcome:



Alignment: an arrangement of visual elements lined up in composition.

Visual Hierarchy: arrangement/presentation of elements in a way that suggests importance. It plays an important role in the design.

Placement: change and position of shapes/objects affect the visual depth and artwork composition. Objects are placed higher in order to show that is further away.

Visual Direction: leading an eye to the next location. It can mean an element that looks like it is actually moving in motion.

For this exercise, we had to do an artwork based on either using alignment, hierarchyplacement or direction. We had to use collage from any sort of item as our medium. 

I did an artwork based on edge alignment. The theme of this artwork is based on food and travel. I search for some images that could captivate and show the theme in the old magazines I collected. 


Final Outcome:


I did another artwork on hierarchy using the colour/contrast technique. While I was searching for ideas on Pinterest, I came across ideas of creating surreal portrait collages.  That’s when I decided to create my own version of it. 

I used a portrait I drew using pencils and a few pieces of magazine pictures combined together. I want to show a contrast between the monochrome drawing and the colourful pictures.

Final Outcome:



Dot: Smallest and fundamental element in graphic design.

Line: Element of art used to define shape, contours, and outlines; also to suggest mass and volume.

Size: Big or small an element is in relation to the other object.

Scale: Size of an object in relation to another object (as a whole).

For this exercise, we need to do a composition on either using dots, lines, size or scale. We are free to use any media we want for our artwork.

At first, I thought about doing something involving pointillism. Then I searched through the internet and found a scene from a female KPOP idol, Sunmi in her Gashina music video. Gashina in Korean means both thorns on a flower and farewell statement for departing. So this scene shows she is upset about the sad breakup and asks herself: why is he leaving me and going away?

Process on final outcome:

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Final Outcome:



Harmony: Explained as having similarity or sameness, one thing belonging to the other.

Movement: The path of a viewer’s eye takes through an artwork.

Rhythm: Created by the placement of repeated elements in artwork to show visual beat/tempo.

For this exercise, we had to take photographs involving one of these principles, harmony, movement or rhythm. 

I chose to do on movement by using the “freeze-frame effect”. I had an idea of combining photos of people’s actions that we can see through our daily lives. For example, in the streets and markets, during festivals and in our home as well. I used a DSRL camera to capture all these photos. 

Example of freeze-frame effect


Final Outcome:



Shape [2D]: Shapes can be described as lines, space or colour.

Form [3D]: Gives dimension, volume, texture, and space. These can be created using lines, tones or colour.

Figure & Ground: Figure= Foreground | Ground= Background

I came across the idea of using James Bond Skyfall as the theme of my artwork for this exercise. But it was kind of difficult to create so I had another idea of combining a gun and chili pepper. Both of them have a painful effect and show danger.

I researched on a silhouette of the gun and a drawing of chili pepper. I want to create some contrast between the gun and the chili pepper. 

I wanted to show a gestalt principle of closure with the chili inside the gun and there are no open edges. And a figure and ground of gun and chili pepper.

Cutting process:

After cutting the silhouette, I coloured the chili pepper inside to create a contrast between the red chili and the black gun. And also one is a silhouette and the other has details. Most importantly, the gun is a shape and a chili is a form. I used a soft pastel to colour the chili.

Colouring process:

After the main subjects are finished, I thought of designing a lighter background to make the gun and chili stand out. I used the pattern of the background from the Skyfall poster. I used pencil shading and shades of blue for the background.

Background process:

Final Outcome:



Proximity: organize or group objects into a composition. It create and eliminate connections between visual elements.

Perspective: represents three-dimensional elements onto a two-dimensional surface. It can create an illusion of space and depth on a flat surface.

Proportion: the harmonious relationship between 2 or more elements placed together in one composition. It creates unity in a design.

Unity: creates a sense of harmony and wholeness using similar elements within a composition. 

Variety: adds interest by using contrasting elements in a composition. It is a design principle that holds the diversity of structure, rules, looks, and feels.

For this exercise, I scrolled through my photos in my phone gallery and found a food photo with a composition that represents these principles. Instead of copying the same layout, I decided to change the layout a little to make it have more variety in sizes and perspectives.

But before I started with my artwork, I gathered some visual references to help me thinking about the composition.

After gathering several visual references and inspirations, I started off by sketching out the cake and beverages for my composition. 

Then I used various watercolour to colour in the shadows and highlights of the sketches and use a soft and light background to make the food stand out more. I decided to keep the cups, jars and plate monochrome with a pencil because I wanted the desserts inside to stand out more.

I decided to change the arrangement of the food to have more perspective with the mango dessert at the back which appears much smaller. I created unity between the cake, fruit tea and jar together. The variety is the different types of desserts.

Final Outcome:


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